Credit Reports and Credit Scores

Your credit history is important to a lot of people: mortgage lenders, banks, utility companies, prospective employers, and more. So it’s especially important that you understand your
credit report, credit score, and the companies that compile that information, credit bureaus.
This brochure provides answers to some of the most common, and most important, questions about credit.
Your Credit Report
Q: What is a credit report?
A: A credit report is a record of your credit history that includes information about:
Your identity. Your name, address, full or partial Social Security number, date of
birth, and possibly employment information.
Your existing credit. Information about credit that you have, such as your credit
card accounts, mortgages, car loans, and student loans. It may also include the
terms of your credit, how much you owe your creditors, and your history of making
Your public record. Information about any court judgments against you, any tax
liens against your property, or whether you have filed for bankruptcy.
Inquiries about you. A list of companies or persons who recently requested a copy
of your report.
Q: Why is a credit report important?
A: Your credit report is important because lenders, insurers, employers, and others may
obtain your credit report from credit bureaus to assess how you manage financial responsibilities. For example:
Lenders may use your credit report information to decide whether you can get a
loan and the terms you get for a loan (for example, the interest rate they will charge
Insurance companies may use the information to decide whether you can get
insurance and to set the rates you will pay.
Employers may use your credit report, if you give them permission to do so, to
decide whether to hire you.
Telephone and utility companies may use information in your credit report to
decide whether to provide services to you.
Landlords may use the information to determine whether to rent an apartment to you.


Q: Who collects and reports credit information about me?
A: There are three major credit bureaus—Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion—that gather
and maintain the information about you that is included in your credit report. The credit
bureaus then provide this information in the form of a credit report to companies or persons
that request it, such as lenders from whom you are seeking credit.
Q: Where do credit bureaus get their information?
A: Credit bureaus get information from your creditors, such as a bank, credit card issuer,
or auto finance company. They also get information about you from public records, such
as property or court records. Each credit bureau gets its information from different sources,
so the information in one credit bureau’s report may not be the same as the information in
another credit bureau’s report.


Q: How can I get a free copy of my credit report?
A: You can get one free credit report every twelve months from each of the nationwide credit bureaus—Equifax,
Experian, and TransUnion—by
visiting or
calling (877) 322-8228.
You will need to provide certain information to access your report, such as your name, address, Social Security number, and date of birth.
You can order one, two, or all three reports at the same time, or you can request these reports at various times
throughout the year. The option you choose will depend on the goal of your review. A report generated by one of
the three major credit bureaus may not contain all of the information pertaining to your credit history. Therefore, if
you want a complete view of your credit record at a particular moment, you should examine your report from each
bureau at the same time. However, if you wish to detect any errors and monitor changes in your credit profile over
time, you may wish to review a single credit report every four months.
Q: Who else is allowed to see my credit report?
A: Because credit reports contain sensitive personal information, access to them is limited. Credit bureaus can
provide credit reports only to
lenders from whom you are seeking credit;
lenders that have granted you credit;
telephone, cell phone, and utility companies that may provide services to you;
your employer or prospective employer, but only if you agree;
insurance companies that have issued or may issue an insurance policy for you;
government agencies reviewing your financial status for government benefits; and
anyone else with a legitimate business need for the information, such as a potential landlord or a bank at
which you are opening a checking account.
Credit bureaus also furnish reports if required by court orders or federal grand jury subpoenas. Upon your written
request, they will also issue your report to a third party.
Q: Does the credit bureau decide whether to grant me credit?
A: No, credit bureaus do not make credit decisions. They provide credit reports to lenders who decide whether to
grant you credit.
Q: How long does negative information, such as late payments, stay on my credit report?
A: Generally, negative credit information stays on your credit report for seven years. If you have filed for personal
bankruptcy, that fact stays on your report for ten years. Information about a lawsuit or an unpaid judgment against
you can be reported for seven years or until the statute of limitations runs out, whichever is longer. Information
about criminal convictions may stay on your credit report indefinitely.
Q: What can I do if I am denied credit, insurance, or employment because of something in
my credit report? What can I do if I receive less favorable credit terms than other consumers
because of something in my credit report?
A: If you are denied credit, insurance, or employment—or some other adverse action is taken against you, such as
lowering your credit limit on credit card account—because of information in your credit report, the lender, insurance
company, or employer must notify you and provide you with the name, address, and phone number of the credit bureau that provided the credit report used to make the decision. You can get a free credit report from this credit bureau
if you request it within sixty days after receiving the notice. This free report is in addition to your annual free report.
In addition, lenders may use a credit report to set the terms of credit they offer you. If a lender offers you terms less
favorable (for example, a higher rate) than the terms offered to consumers with better credit histories based on the
information in your credit report, the lender may give you a notice with information about the credit bureau that
provided the credit report used to make the decision. Again, you can get a free credit report (in addition to your annual free report) from this credit bureau if you request it within sixty days after receiving the notice.
If you receive one of these notices, it’s a good idea to get your free credit report and review the information in it right
away. If you think your credit report contains inaccurate or incomplete information, follow the steps in Credit Report
Errors below, to try to resolve the issue. For tips on how to improve your chances of being granted credit, or to
improve your chances of receiving credit on better terms, read the Federal Reserve’s 5 Tips for Improving Your Credit
Score (available online at
Q: I’ve been receiving unsolicited credit offers. Why? Can I opt-out of receiving these offers?
A: Credit bureaus may sell the names and addresses of consumers who meet specific credit criteria to creditors or
insurers, who must then offer them credit or insurance. For example, a creditor could request from a credit bureau the
names and addresses of consumers who have a credit score of 680 or higher and then offer credit to those consumers.
You can have your name and address removed from these lists by opting-out of the listing. This will reduce the number of unsolicited offers you receive. To opt-out, call 888-5-OPTOUT (888-567-8688) or visit www.optoutprescreen.
com. You will need to provide certain information in order to opt-out, such as your name, address, Social Security
number, and date of birth.
You have the ability to opt-out of receiving offers either for five years or permanently. If you want to opt-out permanently, you will need to fill-out, sign, and mail-in a form. The form is available by either calling the toll-free number or
visiting the website.
You can reverse your opt-out decision at any time to start receiving offers of credit and insurance again by calling the
toll-free phone number or visiting the website.

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